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Hazelnut

Corylus avellana

Common hazel, European hazelnut (Eng.) , Haselneut (Afr.)

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Hazelnuts are deciduous trees or shrubs, depending on how they are pruned. They produce delicious, rich nuts which fall from the tree in mid-autumn. This coincides with their leaves turning beautiful red and gold colours. The male flowers also add an interesting ornamental feature, as their dangling pale yellow catkins are a pretty, but unusual flower. Hazels are a host plant for the truffle - an expensive to purchase and rich-tasting mushroom.

Planning

Difficulty
Moderate
Flowering time
Spring
Fruiting time
Autumn, Winter

Harvesting

Unripe hazelnuts are green. As the nuts mature, they turn brown and fall from the tree. This occurs annually in mid-autumn. Pick up the fallen hazelnuts.

Propagation

Cuttings
Possible to propagate by root cuttings but the success rate is low.
Layering
Tip layering - bend shoots into a V-shape and bury the lower parts in soil 20-25 cm deep, while the tips of the shoot are kept upright. Keep soil moist to promote root development at the V bend.

Special features

Autumn colour
Leaves turn red and gold.
Hedge plant
Can be grown as a shrub and shaped into a hedge screen.

Geography

Origin
Europe and western Asia. British Isles south to Iberia, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, north to central Scandinavia, and east to the central Ural Mountains, the Caucasus, and northwestern Iran.
Natural climate
Temperate

Environment

Light
Full Sun, Partial Sun
Soil moisture
Moist
Soil type
Chalk, Clay, Loam, Sand
Soil PH preference
Acid, Neutral
Frost hardiness
Hardy

Uses

Edible
The kernel of the seed is edible, raw, roasted or in paste form. The kernels can be processed to produce praline or as an ingredient in confectionery and baked goods.
Notes
Culinary

Personality

Family
Corylaceae or Betulaceae
Flower colour
Yellow(male) and red stamens visible from small flowers (female)., Yellow
Scent
None

Problems

Aphids, Oak root fungus, bacterial blight, bacterial canker, Hazelnut mosaic virus, nut weevil, powdery mildew, squirrels.

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