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ROSE

Rosa spp.

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A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. This group of plants can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that often have thorns. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white, yellows, reds, pinks and purples. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 m in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. During the fifteenth century, the rose was used as a symbol for the factions fighting to control England. The white rose symbolized York, and the red rose symbolized Lancaster, as a result, the conflict became known as the "War of the Roses."

Planning

Difficulty
Moderate
Flowering time
Spring, Summer, Autumn
Fruiting time
Spring, Summer, Autumn

Harvesting

Roses can be harvested throughout the growing season. It is best to harvest in the early mornings before the heat of the day. Use sharp, clean secateurs and cut the stems at an angle just above an active bud.

Propagation

Division
Some rose species can be lifted in winter and divided, to produce more plants.
Layering
Some species that produce soft, rambling branches can be multiplied by layering.
Cuttings
Take hardwood cuttings from firm young stems with some leaves in Autumn. Make 1-2.5 cm vertical slits through the bark near the base. Place in pots of moist sand or potting soil to root.
Seed
Sow seeds after cold stratification, either in Spring or in Winter to be outside during the cold.
Notes
Most rose cultivars are made by rooting cuttings of the desired cultivar or by grafting or budding the desired cultivar onto a suitable rootstock.

Special features

Attracts bees
Bees pollinate the flowers.
Hedge plant
The rambling rose species make excellent, dense hedges.
Attractive flowers
Roses are mostly grown in garden throughout the world for their attractive flowers.
Pot plant
The smaller rose species can happily be grown in containers. Provide good light and well draining potting mix, feed regularly.

Geography

Origin
Europe, China and the Middle East
Natural climate
Temperate

Environment

Light
Full Sun
Soil moisture
Moist
Soil type
Loam
Soil PH preference
Acid, Neutral
Frost hardiness
Half-Hardy

Uses

Medicinal
The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine.
Cut flowers
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.
Ornamental plants
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Edible
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine, especially in sweets such as barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, gumdrops, kanafeh, nougat, and Turkish delight. Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.
Perfume
Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses.

Personality

Family
Rosaceae
Flower colour
, Yellow, Red, White, Pink, Purples, Orange, Cream, Green, Bicolour
Scent
Strong

Problems

Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these are also shared with other plants, including especially other genera of the Rosaceae. Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.

Companion plants

Members of the onion family such as chives, ornamental alliums, and edible onions, are rumored to increase the perfume of roses, ward off aphids, and prevent black spot. Scented geraniums (Pelargonium), rue (Ruta), feverfew (T anacetum), parsley (Petroselinum), and thyme (Thymus) all may help ward off Japanese beetles and aphids. Marigolds (Tagetes) may also repel pests and encourage growth. Try ornamental and culinary sage (Salvia), anise-hyssop (Agastache), Russian-sage (Perovskia), lavender (Lavandula), yarrow (Achillea), oregano (Origanum), catmint (Nepeta) and calamint (Calamintha). Oddly enough, tomatoes allegedly prevent black spot, but not many people will be inclined to combine roses and tomatoes. Lavender (Lavandula) and catmint (Nepeta) are good at keeping rabbits away. Yarrow (Achillea) may attract ladybugs who in turn feed on aphids. Remember to plant rose companions at least 30 cm away from your roses so that you do not disturb their roots.

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